GSS Reports
466 Reports Matching Criteria
Name Description Authors Applicable Years
GSS Codebook Appendix A Sampling Design and Weighting
GSS Codebook Appendix B Field Work and Interviewer Specifications
GSS Codebook Appendix C General Coding Instructions
GSS Codebook Appendix D Recodes
GSS Codebook Appendix E Age and Cohort Distributions
GSS Codebook Appendix F Occupational Classification Distributions
GSS Codebook Appendix G Prestige Scores Distributions
GSS Codebook Appendix H Industrial Classifications Distributions
GSS Codebook Appendix I International Standard of Classification of Occupation
GSS Codebook Appendix J DOT Variables
GSS Codebook Appendix K Protestant Denominations Distributions 
GSS Codebook Appendix L Hours Worked Distributions
GSS Codebook Appendix M Abortion and ERA Distributions
GSS Codebook Appendix N Changes in Question Wording, Response Categories, and Format
GSS Codebook Appendix O Previous Usage
GSS Codebook Appendix P Experimental Form
GSS Codebook Appendix Q Study Designs
GSS Codebook Appendix R Crossnational and Topical Modules
GSS Codebook Appendix S Supplemental and Related Data
GSS Codebook Appendix T General Social Survey Papers
GSS Codebook Appendix U Variables by Year
GSS Codebook Appendix V Subject Index to Questions
GSS Codebook Index Index
GSS Codebook Introduction Introduction
GSS Codebook Main Body Main Body
25 Codebook Matching Criteria
Name Description Authors Applicable Years
GSS Codebook Appendix A Sampling Design and Weighting
GSS Codebook Appendix B Field Work and Interviewer Specifications
GSS Codebook Appendix C General Coding Instructions
GSS Codebook Appendix D Recodes
GSS Codebook Appendix E Age and Cohort Distributions
GSS Codebook Appendix F Occupational Classification Distributions
GSS Codebook Appendix G Prestige Scores Distributions
GSS Codebook Appendix H Industrial Classifications Distributions
GSS Codebook Appendix I International Standard of Classification of Occupation
GSS Codebook Appendix J DOT Variables
GSS Codebook Appendix K Protestant Denominations Distributions 
GSS Codebook Appendix L Hours Worked Distributions
GSS Codebook Appendix M Abortion and ERA Distributions
GSS Codebook Appendix N Changes in Question Wording, Response Categories, and Format
GSS Codebook Appendix O Previous Usage
GSS Codebook Appendix P Experimental Form
GSS Codebook Appendix Q Study Designs
GSS Codebook Appendix R Crossnational and Topical Modules
GSS Codebook Appendix S Supplemental and Related Data
GSS Codebook Appendix T General Social Survey Papers
GSS Codebook Appendix U Variables by Year
GSS Codebook Appendix V Subject Index to Questions
GSS Codebook Index Index
GSS Codebook Introduction Introduction
GSS Codebook Main Body Main Body
131 Questionnaires Matching Criteria
Name Description Authors Applicable Years
1972 GSS Quex 1972 GSS Questionnaire
1973 GSS Quex 1973 GSS Questionnaire
1974 GSS Quex 1974 GSS Questionnaire
1975 GSS Quex 1975 GSS Questionnaire
1976 GSS Quex 1976 GSS Questionnaire
1977 GSS Quex 1977 GSS Questionnaire
1978 GSS Quex 1978 GSS Questionnaire
1980 GSS Quex 1980 GSS Questionnaire
1982 GSS Quex 1982 GSS Questionnaire
1983 GSS Quex 1983 GSS Questionnaire
1984 GSS Quex 1984 GSS Questionnaire
1984 GSS-MAS 1984 GSS Military Attitudes Supplement
1984 SAQ 1984 Self Administered Questionnaire
1985 GSS Quex 1985 GSS Questionnaire
1985 GSS SAQ ISSP 1985 GSS Self Administered Questionnaire ISSP
1986 GSS 1986 GSS Questionnaire
1986 GSS SAQ ISSP 1986 GSS Self Administered Questionnaire ISSP
1987 GSS 1987 GSS Questionnaire
1987 GSS SAQ ISSP 1987 GSS Self Administered Questionnaire ISSP
1988 GSS A 1988 GSS Ballot A
1988 GSS B 1988 GSS Ballot B
1988 GSS C 1988 GSS Ballot C
1988 GSS SAQ ISSP 1988 GSS Self Administered Questionnaire ISSP
1989 GSS SAQ ISSP 1989 GSS Self Administered Questionnaire ISSP
1989 GSS SAQ X 1989 GSS Self Administered Questionnaire X
34 Cross National Reports Matching Criteria
Name Description Authors Applicable Years
CNR 01 Educational Aims in the USA and in the Federal Republic of Germany, A Cross-National Comparison No significant difference was found in the evaluation of educational aims between the United States and Germany. Instead, one finds in both nations a clear similarity of values throughout different categories of respondents characterized by varying socioeconomic and demographic traits. Also, one finds the expected dichotomy of educational aims of conformity and of self-direction with similar ordering of items. Porst, Rolf
CNR 02 Attitudes Towards Women's Role -- A Comparative Analysis Based on the 1977 NORC General Social Survey (GSS) and the 1982 German General Social Survey (ALLBUS) Germans and Americans show different patterns of support for various feminist items. In both samples, the younger, the better educated, and the never married groups showed changing attitudes towards a non-traditional view on key variables. Women were not more likely to support a non-traditional view of the role of women than men. Krauth, Cornelia
CNR 03 Is There a Legitimacy Gap- Discrepancies Between Government Policies and Public Opinion Werner, Hagstotz
CNR 04 British and American Political Attitudes in 1985 Although Americans and Britons have similar attitudes on some topics, British respondents were much more in favor of government programs and were consistently more negative than Americans about the responsiveness of government to citizens. Davis, James A.
CNR 05 The Welfare State in Cross-National Perspective Smith, Tom W.
CNR 06 Beetas and Baytas- How Social Structure Shapes Attitudes in Britain and the United States Britain is unambiguously secular and down market compared with America, and these characteristics affect attitudes and opinions similarly in both nations. Davis, James A.
CNR 07 Social Inequality in Cross-National Perspective Smith, Tom W.
CNR 08 The Ups and Downs of Cross-National Survey Research Numerical scales, dichotomous choices of answers, determining the strength of verbal labels, and multiple indicators partially solve measurement difficulties - which are due to cultural and linguistic differences - involved in cross-national survey research. Though these methods may complement each other, artifacts may still occur. Smith, Tom W.
CNR 09 Attitudes Toward Free Speech in Six Countries in the mid 1980s - Australia, Austria, Great Britain, Italy, US, West Germany Though all nations support rights for basic protests and oppose extreme action, they are inconsistent on where to draw the line and on what things they will and will not tolerate. Australians and Britons support non striking protesters, Americans tolerate racists relatively, Germans and Austrians tolerate revolutionaries meetings but not marches, and Italians tolerate strikes over revolutionaries and racists. Becker, J. W., Davis, James A.
CNR 10 Inequality and Welfare Smith, Tom W.
CNR 11 Measuring National Differences Jowell, Roger, Davis, James A.
CNR 12 Family and Changing Sex Roles- Some Preliminary Findings About Sex Role Attitudes in Germany and the US Funk, Walter
CNR 13 The Separation of Work and the Family- Attitudes Toward Womens Labor Force Participation in Germany, Great Britain and US Recent trends indicate substantial changes in the labor-force status of women in western industrialized societies. Many studies indicate that shifts in sex-role attitudes have apparently accompanied these changes, but research has not focused on the specific conditions under which men and women approve of nonfamilial roles for women. Moreover, virtually no comparative research exists on this topic. In this paper, data for three western countries--(West) Germany, Great Britain, and the United States--are compared with respect to attitudes toward female labor-force participation. The data, taken from the 1988 ISSP (International Social Survey Program) module on the family, focus specifically on the conditions under which respondents approve of women working. Results indicate that the attitudes of both men and women reflect substantial preference for a primary familial role for women, especially when young children are present. Within-country patterns of predictable variation in attitudes are quite similar in the countries considered--attitudes favoring the labor-force involvement of women are associated with gender, labor-force experiences, schooling, and birth cohort. Between-country differences are in part explainable by normative differences in labor-force participation rates of women and perceptions of the suitability of child-care resources, but most of the country differences were unexplained by the factors considered and are thought to be due to unmeasured normative and institutional factors associated with the care and nurture of children. Braun, Michael, Scott, Jacqueline, Alwin, Duane F.
CNR 14 Career Strategies in Capitalism and Socialism- Work Values and Job Rewards in the US and Hungary Hungarians put more emphasis on economic incentives. Americans were more interested in promotions. Stark, David, Kalleberg, Arne L.
CNR 15 Fairness Motivations and Tradeoffs Underlying Public Support for Government Environmental Spending in Nine Nations Countries with high levels of support for social services also support government spending on the environment. Pro-business values are associated with lower levels of support for environmental spending. The young and better educated support more environmental spending. Zuckerbraun, Sara, Smith, Tom W., Rasinski, Kenneth A.
CNR 16 Environmental and Scientific Knowledge Around the World Nations with a high per-capita GNP have a higher level of scientific and environmental knowledge than nations with a low per-capita GNP do. People with more education are more knowledgeable about science and the environment than people with less education are. People who are very religious are less knowledgeable than others. Smith, Tom W.
CNR 17 Improving Cross-National Survey Research by Measuring the Intensity of Response Categories Smith, Tom W.
CNR 18 System Cynicism in Twenty Contemporary Nations The majority in twenty countries are more idealistic than cynical about their mobility regimes. Structural features such as region and position impact cynicism more than cultural or perceptual ones. Davis, James A.
CNR 19 National Pride, A Cross National Analysis Stable, established, developed democracies have the greatest levels of national pride. Across almost all countries, national pride is lower for minorities and men and women have similar levels. Jarkko, Lars, Smith, Tom W.
CNR 20 A Cross-national Comparison on Attitutdes towards Work by Age and Labor Force Status Smith, Tom W.
CNR 21 Public Support for Governmental Benefits for the Elderly Across Countries and Time Smith, Tom W.
CNR 22 Constructing Cross-National Surveys Smith, Tom W.
CNR 23 Methods for Assessing and Calibrating Response Scales Across Countries and Languages Smith, Tom W.
CNR 24 Survey Non-Response Procedures in Cross-National Perspective- The 2005 ISSP Non-Response Survey Smith, Tom W.
CNR 25 Social-Science Research and the General Social Surveys Park, Alison, Smith, Tom W., Koch, Achim, Kim, Jibum
123 Methodological Reports Matching Criteria
Name Description Authors Applicable Years
MR001 Can we have confidence in confidence Smith, Tom W.
MR002 In Search of House Effects: A Comparison of Responses to Various Questions By Different Survey Organizations While house effects are not an insurmountable and pervasive survey problem, they do affect survey response particularly in the area of the don't know response level. Smith, Tom W.
MR003 Weighting the General Social Surveys for Bias Related to Household Size Both full probability and block-quota sampling techniques overrepresent people from small households. This bias can be eliminated by weighting the number of eligible respondents per household. The distortions caused by this bias fortunately appear to be small. Stephenson, C. Bruce
MR004 Size of Place Codes on the 1972-1977 General Social Surveys Review of the GSS size of place codes resolved suspected sampling frame artifact but uncovered miscoded size of place variables. Fortunately, the magnitude of the misclassifications is minimal. Smith, Tom W.
MR005 Response Rates on the 1975-1978 General Social Surveys with Comparisons to the Omnibus Surveys of the Survey Research Center, 1972-1975 This report examines response rates of NORC and SRC and finds that on the GSS the causes of non-response are explicit refusals, unavailable, and a small residual group of sick or otherwise uninterviewable people. The mixture of non-responses appears to differ between the GSS's and SRC's surveys, although total response rates are nearly identical. Smith, Tom W.
MR006 Ethnic Measurement and Identification Ethnicity is a difficult attribute to measure. It can be determined for about 78 percent of all non-blacks when measured subjectively and for about 85 percent when determined subjectively and natally. A lack of ethnic affiliation is related to being a member of the old stock, host culture; having low education and social standing; and poor transmission of family information between generations. Smith, Tom W.
MR007 Probability Sampling with Quotas Stephenson, C. Bruce
MR008 Analysis of Test/Retest Experiments on the 1972, 1973, 1974 and 1978 General Social Surveys The authors explain various techniques to determine measurement error in opinion surveys. Focusing on test/retest experiments, they conclude that the problems of distinguishing measurement error from true change are sufficiently fundamental and sufficiently complex that they must be attacked with various techniques. Bruce, C. Stephenson, Smith, Tom W.
MR009 Sex and the GSS - Nonresponse Differences The problem of underrepresentation of males on the GSS reflects the nonresponse tendency of males, possibly exacerbated by female interviewers. Surveys using full probability sampling generally have an underrepresentation of males. Smith, Tom W.
MR010 Situational Qualifications to Generalized Absolutes: An Analysis of 'Approval of Hitting' Questions on the General Social Surveys There is an apparent contradiction between the disapproving responses to the general hitting question and the more specific subquestions. This contradiction is due in part to differences in education and achievement. Smith, Tom W.
MR011 Self-Employment: An Analysis of General Social Survey Measures of Employment Status Conflicts found in the work supervision and self-employment items stem from: (1) borderline cases which include both elements, (2) answering the question for one's spouse rather than self, and (3) misinterpretation of the supervision question. Smith, Tom W.
MR012 The Subjectivity of Ethnicity Smith, Tom W.
MR013 A General Social Survey Experiment in Generic Words Variations in the wording of the child qualities items were examined in order to determine the degree of male bias present. This bias is present in both variations but to a lesser degree in the child item than the he item. Schaeffer, Nora Cate
MR014 House Effects and the Reproducibility of Survey Measurements: A Comparison of the 1980 General Social Survey and the 1980 American National Election Study The 1980 General Social Survey and the American National Study by SRC are compared to determine house effects. The difference on frequency of don't know categories between the two surveys is the most significant house effect. Also, the difference in time of interview and training of interviewers causes variation in data. Smith, Tom W.
MR015 Non-Attitudes: A Review and Evaluation Studies of voting behavior and other political matters in the - fifties developed a picture of the American electorate that was startlingly at odds with the basic assumption of a rational citizenry as formulated in classic democratic theory. In general, the low or defective levels of conceptualization, information, participation, attitude constraint, and consistency were seen as indicating a very underdeveloped level of political thought and weak or disorganized political attitudes. In particular, inconsistency in attitudes over time was interpreted as indicating an abundance of nonattitudes. In this paper, we will review the literature on nonattitudes. We will examine how the concept of nonattitudes compares with rival explanations of mass belief systems and evaluate the conceptual and evaluate the conceptual and empirical appropriateness of competing formulations. We will then consider the implications of these findings on survey design and analysis in general Smith, Tom W.
MR016 The Hidden 25 Percent: An Analysis of Nonresponse on the 1980 General Social Survey Various methods of measuring the impact of non-response bias on survey estimates are examined. It is concluded that there is no simple, general, or accurate way of measuring it. Further research is encouraged. Smith, Tom W.
MR017 Educated Don't Knows: An Analysis of the Relationship Between Education and Item Nonresponse In general, item nonresponse is higher for the less educated. The reverse is true however on obscure and fictive questions without filters. With filters, the obscure and fictive questions show no association between item nonresponse and education. Smith, Tom W.
MR018 Problems in Ethnic Measurement: Over-, Under-, and Misidentification Ethnicity is the most difficult of all background variables to measure, as language, religion, race, nationality and culture must be pieced together. About one quarter of Americans are either over- or under-identifiers of their ancestors. The ability of ethnicity to explain attitudes drops with immigrant generation, though it remains significant even after several generations. Smith, Tom W.
MR019 Contradictions on the Abortion Scale Respondents who contradict themselves on abortion items actually disapprove of abortion. The approving response to the general item is best considered an error in grasping the connection between the general and the situational items. Smith, Tom W.
MR020 Conditional Order Effects Smith, Tom W.
MR021 Discrepancies in Past Presidential Vote Voter turnout and candidate voted for are difficult variables to reliably measure. Voting is consistently over-reported and votes for winners are usually exaggerated. Smith, Tom W.
MR022 Recalling Attitudes: An Analysis of Retrospective Questions on the 1982 General Social Survey The reliability of attitudinal recall over a 10-year period is tested. Recall ability was found to depend upon the item tested. On school busing, there was close proximity in marginal distributions, while on attitudes toward racial intermarriage, respondents recalled more support for anti-miscegenation laws than had actually been found. On the item asking about Communism, recall is poor. There was an interaction between education and recall on all three items, though other variables showed no such effects. Smith, Tom W.
MR023 An Experimental Comparison of Clustered and Scattered Scale Items Clustering scale items together increases inter-item correlations, but has no clear impact between the scale and independent variables. Smith, Tom W.
MR024 Attitude Constraint as a Function of Non-Affective Dimensions Results from the 1982 GSS experiment show that non-affective dimensions such as importance, information, firmness, and open-ended questions added to issues like support/opposition to the ERA and abortion, and can discriminate the attitude constraint between two related measures. Smith, Tom W.
MR025 Using Temporary Refusals to Estimate Nonresponse Bias Smith, Tom W.
30 Project Reports Matching Criteria
Name Description Authors Applicable Years
PR 01 Who What When Where Why - An Analysis of Usage of GSS, 1972-78 Smith, Tom W.
PR 02 Who What When Where and Why - An Analysis of Usage of the GSS, 1972-78, 2nd edition Smith, Tom W.
PR 03 The National Data Program for the Social Sciences There are two purposes of the National Data Program for the Social Sciences. First, it measures trends in attitudes behavior and attributes. Secondly, it makes useful and relevant survey data available to the public. Smith, Tom W.
PR 04 Analysis of GSS Usage Among Sociologists In 1981, the GSS enjoyed high recognition and use among Sociologists and was more popular than other equivalent data sets. Smith, Tom W.
PR 05 Who What When Where and Why - An Analysis of Usage of the GSS, 1972-80 Sociologists are the biggest users of GSS data. Work in other disciplines include Political Science, Communications, Psychology, Statistics, and Social Work. Demographics are used more than other variables. Papers using GSS data have appeared in dozens of journals and at scholarly meetings. Other works using this survey information are polls, reports, and student dissertations. Most GSS's have been used to carry out scholarly research, conduct methodological studies, and report social indicators. Smith, Tom W.
PR 06 Have We Learned Anything from the GSS A review of the major themes learned from research with the GSS include the following: (1) the last twenty-five years have seen an increase in social liberalism on most issues; (2) mass attitude change has affected all parts of the social structure about equally, with conversion as important as replacement; (3) intergenerational transmittances shape attitudes and behaviors as well as socioeconomic status; and (4) membership in sub-cultures is a significant influence on a wide range of attitudes. Davis, James A., Smith, Tom W.
PR 07 Who What When Where and Why, An Analysis of Usage of the GSS 1972-1982 Smith, Tom W.
PR 08 A Summary Evaluation of GSS Questions, 1972-83 A Variable Description File was created for the display and analysis of 380 standard GSS variables. It includes the years each question was asked, best trend model skewness, membership in an attitude scale or set, number of usages in papers in the Annotated Bibliography, and special problems that have been noted with that question. Peterson, Bruce L., Smith, Tom W.
PR 09 The Role of the General Social Survey in the Social Sciences The main function of the GSS is to provide information for scientific study and monitoring of social trends. Smith, Tom W.
PR 10 Who What When Where and Why, An Analysis of Usage of the GSS, 1972-83 Smith, Tom W.
PR 11 The 1985 Survey of Users of the GSS- A Summary Report Overall, user satisfaction with the GSS is very high. Smith, Tom W.
PR 12 The International Social Survey Program Smith, Tom W.
PR 13 A Summary of Findings from the GSS Smith, Tom W.
PR 14 Who, What, When, Where and Why- An Analysis of Usage of the GSS, 1972-1985 Smith, Tom W.
PR 15 Who, What, When, Where and Why- An Analysis of Usage of the GSS, 1972-1987 Smith, Tom W.
PR 16 Who, What, When, Where and Why- An Analysis of Usage of the GSS, 1972-1989 Academics, particularly sociologists, are the most frequent users of the GSS. The most heavily used variables include demographics, personal evaluation questions, and attitude questions on abortion, government spending, capital punishment, civil liberties, and sexual behavior. Usage reflected in journals, books, and conference papers has increased in this time period. The GSS is also widely used in teaching. Smith, Tom W.
PR 17 The International Social Survey Program Smith, Tom W.
PR 18 Who, What, When, Where and Why- An Analysis of Usage of the GSS, 1972-1991 This article is a compilation of the various uses and users of the General Social Survey since its creation in 1972. Smith, Tom W.
PR 19 Who What When Where and Why, An Analysis of Usage of the GSS, 1972-1993 Although academics in political science, psychology, medicine, and other fields are increasingly using GSS data, sociologists continue to be the heaviest users. Replicating items, including demographics, measures of personal happiness and job satisfaction, and questions on abortion, government spending, and sexual morality are among the most commonly used variables. As of 1993, papers using GSS data have appeared in over 400 journals and have been presented at the meetings of nearly 200 scholarly associat Smith, Tom W.
PR 20 Who What When Where and Why, An Analysis of Usage of the GSS, 1972-1995 Smith, Tom W.
PR 21 Tall Oaks From Little Acorns Grow- The GSS, 1971-1996 Smith, Tom W.
PR 22 Who What When Where and Why, An Analysis of Usage of the GSS, 1972-2000 Smith, Tom W.
PR 23 Globalizing Survey Research The ISSP Smith, Tom W.
PR 24 A Generation of Data- The GSS, 1972-2002 Smith, Tom W.
PR24_appendix Smith, Tom W.
60 Social Change Reports Matching Criteria
Name Description Authors Applicable Years
SC01 Communism, Conformity, Cohorts and Categories: American Tolerance in 1954 and 1972-73 There has been an average increase of about 23 percent points in tolerant responses; 4 percent of this increase is due to cohort effects on educational attainment; about 5 percent is due to cohort replacement; about 13 percent due to increasing tolerance among all cohort and education groups; and 1 percent due to increased college attainment not accounted for by cohort. Davis, James A.
SC02 Background Characteristics in the US Adult Population 1952-1973, A Survey-Metric Model There is a definite trend away from sex equality in education, especially in college attendance. There has been very little narrowing in race, region, or religious differences in education, until the most recent cohorts where northern white Catholics and southern white Protestants show virtual parity with northern white Protestants. Davis, James A.
SC03 Ms President - A Study of Trends in the Political Role of Women, 1936-1974 See “A Study of Trends in the Political Role of Women, 1936-1974.” in Studies of Social Change Since 1948, Vol. II, James A. Davis (ed.). Tolerant attitudes toward women's role in politics have led the change in objective behavior, both being factors of shifting social and economic conditions. Smith, Tom W.
SC04 A Trend Analysis of Attitudes Toward Capital Punishment, 1936-1974 Smith, Tom W.
SC05 Age and Social Change, An Analysis of the Association Between Age-Cohorts and Attitude Change, 1972-1977 Attitudes that have undergone significant change were examined, and it was found that age was related to these items. It was argued though not proven that this relationship is a result of generational rather than maturational differences between age groups. However, all cohorts changed their opinions in response to period stimuli while maintaining differences between themselves. Smith, Tom W.
SC06 Happiness - Time Trends, Seasonal Variations, Inter-S. Levels of response to questions of happiness seem to exhibit a seasonal variation and respond to context effects. Measured happiness appears to have risen between the late forties and late fifties, declined in the sixties, and bottomed out in the early seventies. Smith, Tom W.
SC07 Public Opinion Regarding Various Forms of Sexual Behavior Younger cohorts tend to be more sexually permissive than older cohorts, but the youngest adults are no more permissive than those who became adults during the sixties. While current across-the-board trends are mixed, cohort turnover should continue to push us in a permissive direction. Taylor, D. Garth
SC08 A Compendium of Trends on GSS Questions This compendium presents trends in questions asked in the GSS. Only GSS data are used on the demographic questions, but for the non-demographics, other similarly-worded national opinions samples are used as well. Smith, Tom W.
SC09 General Liberalism and Social Change in Post WWII America, A Summary of Trends During the post World War II period there has been a shift toward liberal attitudes and behavior. This liberal trend varies in direction by subject area. Limited evidence shows a weakening and reversal of the trend during the seventies. This waning of liberal trends is characterized by an equalization of the number of liberal and conservative trends and a large number of trends showing no net direction. Smith, Tom W.
SC10 Conservative Weather in a Liberalizing Climate - Change in Selected NORC GSS Items, 1972-78 There exists evidence to suggest a long-term climatic trend toward liberalism, but these changes have been clouded over or overshadowed by a short term conservative shift in the weather. Whether this trend to the right continues remains to be seen, though a larger time perspective on trends suggest not. Davis, James A.
SC11 The 75% Solution - An Analysis of the Structure of Attitudes on Gun Control, 1959-1977 A quarter of the American public supports gun control. This attitude has remained consistent for nearly 20 years. Smith, Tom W.
SC12 The Parental Families of Americans in Birth Cohorts 1890-1955, A Categorical Lineral Equation Model Estimated From the NORC GSS Using five variables: father's education and occupation, number of siblings, size of residence, and mother's work status, a statistical linear model is analyzed to describe large-scale chance in American families. Davis, James A.
SC13 Public Support for Educational Spending Age is negatively related to financial support for education. If a respondent is a teacher or student, had confidence in educational institutions, favors social welfare spending, has more liberal political views, he/she is more likely to favor financial support for education. Smith, Tom W.
SC14 An Evaluation of Trends in GSS Items, Changes Due to the 1980 GSS GSS items are categorized as demographics, behavioral, attitudinal, or personal evaluations. An explanation of change is now considered using four approaches: the best-fitting model, the proportion, the slope, and the amount of explained variance. Twenty-one percent of models changed their form due to 1980 data and 39 percent of models were constant both in 1978 and 1980. Personal evaluations are the most likely to show change while demographics and behaviors are the least likely. Duchon, Millard
SC15 The Polls - American Attitudes Toward the Soviet Union and Communism Public dislike for Russia increased dramatically in the second half of the seventies, and support to prevent the spread of Communism increased from 1970 to 1980. However, tolerance toward domestic Communists has remained the same. According to public opinion, we are not in a period of cold war or detente, but in an armed truce maintained by a balance of power. Smith, Tom W.
SC16 Counting Your Change For a Ten, America from 1972 to 1982 as Reflected in the NORC GSS This summary of trends in 111 GSS items indicates that, for the majority of them, change was modest and linear. Substantively, racial attitudes, sex roles and sex norms reflected a liberalizing trend. A structural model involving year, education and prestige explains the stability of the occupational variables, as well as substantial fractions of the change in the most volatile items. Davis, James A.
SC17 Cycles of Reform - A Summary of Trends Since WWII Smith, Tom W.
SC18 New Money, An Old ManLady and Twos Company- Subjective Welfare in the NORC GSS, 1972-1982 Being black, being unmarried, and worsening financial state are independently related to unhappiness. However, no other social ties or rank variables such as occupation and education predict happiness. Thus only the economics, not the sociological nor the psychological hypothesis of happiness, receives much support. Davis, James A.
SC19 Atop a Liberal Plateau - A Summary of Trends Since WWII Despite assertions that the 1970's ended in a conservative tide, only two areas 1) spending and taxation and 2) crime, showed conservative trends. A number of issues however slowed their liberal advance or reached a liberal plateau. Reasons for the liberal plateau are examined along with reasons for the misperception of a conservative tide. Smith, Tom W.
SC20 Catholic Attitudes Towards Abortion, 1962-1982 Smith, Tom W.
SC21 American Attitudes towards Race Relations Racial tolerance among Americans has increased dramatically in the last forty years. This reflects changes in the three major factors which determine white attitudes toward blacks: birth cohort, education, and cultural background consisting of region, ethnicity, religion, and community background. Still, majorities are opposed to giving special treatment to minorities. Sheatsley, Paul B., Smith, Tom W.
SC22 Did Ferraros Candidacy Reduce Public Support for Feminism Lower support for political feminism resulted from a political reaction to Ferraro among Republicans and Reagan voters who favored a different type of woman candidate than a New York liberal. Smith, Tom W.
SC23 Trends in Attitudes on Sexual and Reproductive Issues Smith, Tom W.
SC24 What the GSS Tells Us About Social Change Most items in the GSS have changed in the 13 years covered by this paper. This change is due to the fact that either: A) Sociological phenomena track short term economic fluctuations, B) American society is undergoing massification, or C) society changes through cohort replacement. Davis, James A.
SC25 Red in the Morning Recent Trends in American Attitudes Toward the Soviet Union and Communism Smith, Tom W.
41 Topical Reports Matching Criteria
Name Description Authors Applicable Years
Making Bureaucracies Work Between 1972 and 1978 there has been a decline in confidence in political and social institutions. This is both a cause and an effect of the Watergate era. Overseeing and investigating efforts of Congress, the press, and citizen groups during this period would not have been pursued so forcefully if the credibility of these institutions had not been undermined by changes in public trust before the 1970s. Weiss, Carol, Taylor, D. Garth, Mathiowetz, Nancy A., Smith, Tom W.
TR02 Background Variables and Opinions in the 1972-77 NORC GSS - Ten Generalizations about Age, Education, Occupational Prestige, Race, Religion, and Sex, and Forty-Nine Opinion Items The relationships between background variables and attitude items are investigated and reveal that after controlling for interrelations between predictors, persistent but not consistent associations exist for education and opinion responses. However, age is a persistent and consistent correlate of attitudes while religion and sex are associated with opinion for about half of all variables. Race and region are powerful predictors of attitudes. These two items along with religion, form systems of suppressor v Davis, James A.
TR03 College Dropouts - An Analysis of the Psychological Well-Being and Attitudes of Various Educational Groups An analysis of measures of psychological well-being show little support for Campbell's hypothesis of a distressed college dropout. Among graduate dropouts, however, there is a clear drop on most measures of psychological well-being. This is true even though occupational prestige and income continue to rise with years of educational attainment, even among college dropouts. Smith, Tom W.
TR04 Hardship, Hard Times, and Hard Hearts It isn't periods of national economic malaise that bring about greater prejudices, but rather greater prejudice can be found at any time disproportionately among the poor and less educated. Social alienation is higher among lower socioeconomic groups and thus serves as both a link among causes of prejudices and a cause itself. However, all groups, including the lower socioeconomic status groups have become more tolerant over the last 40 years. Smith, Tom W.
TR05 Up and Down Opportunitys Ladder Occupational mobility in the U.S. has been strongly upward, but actually the percentage of downwardly mobile white collar workers' sons is as high as the percentage of upwardly mobile blue collar workers' sons. Education can be viewed as both preserving the class structure in America (as father's occupation and son's education are highly correlated) or as the vehicle for the upward mobility (since education is highly correlated with occupation net of father's occupation). Ethnic group differences in occupat Davis, James A.
TR06 Achievement Variables and Class Cultures- Family, Schooling, Job, and Forty-Nine Dependent Variables in the Cumulative GSS Occupational mobility has no effect on a wide variety of attitudes and behavior. Other conclusions are that people from farm backgrounds tend to be more conservative; respondents' occupational status has a significant effect on about 43 of the items analyzed; and education is the strongest predictor. The notion of powerful class culture thus receives little support. (See also No. 1718) Davis, James A.
TR08 Working Wives and Womens Rights, The Connection Between the Employment Status of Wives and the Feminist Attitudes of Husbands Support for women's rights is associated with a wife's involvement in the labor force among wives and their husbands as well. The impact is strongest and most consistent on issues dealing with the home and work, but also extends into some political women's rights issues. This helps explain the lack of differences between men's and women's opinions on women's rights issues. Smith, Tom W.
TR09 America's Religious Mosaic Smith, Tom W.
TR10 The Polls: Gender and Attitudes toward Violence Women are less supportive of force and violence than men. Smith, Tom W.
TR11 The Discussion Networks of the American Population Bivariate analysis of subgroup differences by age, education, race, sex, and size of place indicates that network range is greatest among the young, the highly educated, and the urban dwellers. Marsden, Peter V.
TR12 The Polls: Social Security Americans support the idea of helping the elderly and have persistently approved of existing or higher levels of government spending or activity concerning Social Security. Although Social Security is as popular as ever, rankings of spending priorities in 1984 and 1985 place Social Security behind support in areas such as law enforcement, health care, and education. Smith, Tom W., Shapiro, Robert Y.
TR14 strangers friends and happiness Expressions of happiness increase with the size of a person's discussion network and decrease with the prevalence of strangers in the network. The density of especially close relations in the network has no direct effect on happiness. It is the negative impact of strangers rather than the positive impact of close relations that determines expressions of happiness. Burt, Ronald S.
TR15 Strange Bedfellows - An Analysis of Attitudes Towards Feminsism and Pornography Smith, Tom W.
TR16 Race, Sociopolitical Participation and Black Empowerment There are no interracial differences in sociopolitical participation after controlling for differences in socioeconomic status. The most active segment of the black population is no longer the politically discontented, those with a high sense of political efficacy but with low trust. Now, the politically engaged, those who exhibit high efficacy and high trust, are most active among blacks. Bobo, Lawrence, Gilliam, Franklin D.
TR17 Americans and Their Sexual Partners In the past year, about 4 out of 5 adults report monogamous behavior over the previous year, with 19 out of 20 married persons reporting the same. While most believe premarital sex is not always wrong, most respondents still highly disapprove of extramarital sex. Smith, Tom W., Greeley, Andrew M., Michael, Robert T.
TR18 Adult Sexual Behavior in 1989, Number of Partners, Frequency, and Risk Despite a low percentage of homosexuals, a high percentage of monogamous married people, and a sizeable abstinent population, many of the young, unmarried males, and minorities in urban areas have multiple and/or unfamiliar sex partners exposing them to the risk of AIDS. Smith, Tom W.
TR19 Ethnic Images : Americans still maintain different opinions and images of various ethnic groups, with minorities typically being viewed more negatively than whites. While such images are not related to busing, negative images relate to less support for affirmative action, school integration, attitudes towards foreign nations, neighborhood integration, and racial intermarriage. Smith, Tom W.
TR20 Economic Versus Race Targeted Policy- Public Opinion on the New Liberal Welfare Agenda Whites, males, and the less educated favor programs targeted to the poor rather than blacks while blacks do not express a consistently large preference for race- or poor- based policies. Those holding prejudiced views reject both types of policies. Kluegel, James R., Bobo, Lawrence
TR21 Modern American Prejudice: Stereotypes, Social Distance, and Perceptions of Discrimination Toward Blacks, Hispanics, and Asians Based on judgments of lack of economic progress, Americans inaccurately stereotype blacks, Hispanics, and Asians as less intelligent, more violent, more lazy, less patriotic, and more likely to prefer to live off welfare than whites. These views decrease with more education and increase with age, high levels of authoritarianism, and high levels of prejudice. Increased perception of discrimination against blacks is mainly due to higher levels of education. Kluegel, James R., Bobo, Lawrence
TR22 Changing Racial Labels From Colored to Negro to Black to African American The article reviews the history, causes, and controversies over racial labels for black Americans. Smith, Tom W.
TR24 Organizational Commitment and Job Performance This paper examines the relationship between organizational commitment and job performance. We first discuss the theoretical rationale for why organizational commitment should enhance job performance. Then, we estimate the empirical relations between these constructs using data from a recent survey of a representative sample of employed Americans--the 1991 General Social Survey. These data suggest that there is a statistically significant--though modest-- relationship between the "effort" dimension of organizational commitment and job performance. We next evaluate several possible explanations of this observed effect of commitment on performance. We finally discuss some of the implications and possible interpretations of our results. Kalleberg, Arne L., Marsden, Peter V.
TR25 American Sexual Behavior - Trends, Socio-Demographics Differences, and Risk Behavior 2003 Smith, Tom W.
TR26 Conceptualizing and Measuring Culture in Surveys - Values, Strategies, and Symbols Analysis of response distributions for these items reveals a relatively high degree of consensus among Americans regarding the value of self-sufficiency, the efficacy of individual striving, and the virtues of honesty and responsibility in friends. Swingle, Joseph F., Marsden, Peter V.
TR27 Americans Attitudes Toward Cultural Diversity and Cultural Authority - Culture Wars, Social Closure, or Multiple Dimensions Despite extensive public controversy over issues of cultural authority and diversity in the arts and education, little research has analyzed the nature and causes of relevant public attitudes. Using data from the GSS’s 1993 "culture" module, we analyze responses to a set of questions dealing with such matters as confidence in educators' judgment in creating curricula, the appropriate role in curicula of the classics and multicultural works, and the value of modern art. Patterns of responses for both full and college-educated samples are inconsistent with the view that a "culture war" divides the American public; results are more consistent with a view of attitudes towards high culture, multiculturalism, and elite cultural authority as separate dimensions, shaped by different causal antecedents. Support for high culture is positively associated with educational attainment, participation in the arts, and political tolerance; sympathy with cultural pluralism is greater among the well-educated, women, and the young, and weaker among political conservatives and those who support racial separation. Our findings suggest that certain premises that have shaped public debates about the arts and higher education have been misleading. DiMaggio, Paul, Bryson, Bethany
TR28 Part-Time Workers in the US - Correlates and Policy Issues The main difference between full-time and part-time workers are in the rewards and benefits they receive from their jobs. Part-timers are paid less and receive fewer fringe benefits. Male part-timers are especially disadvantaged with regard to autonomy and advancement opportunities. However, part-timers and full-timers are equally committed to their work and place equal importance on job security, doing interesting work, and having opportunities for advancement. Kalleberg, Arne L.
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