Cite the GSS


GSS is a project of NORC at the University of Chicago.

Our name is NORC at the University of Chicago for all media, communications, and marketing purposes.

The first reference that we recommend to reporters is: "The independent research organization NORC at the University of Chicago," with subsequent references simply NORC.

If you are using information from the General Social Survey, the citation we recommend is the following: "The General Social Survey (GSS) is a project of the independent research organization NORC at the University of Chicago, with principal funding from the National Science Foundation." Subsequent reference would be simply GSS.


Smith, Tom W, Peter Marsden, Michael Hout, and Jibum Kim. General Social Surveys, 1972-2016 [machine-readable data file] /Principal Investigator, Tom W. Smith; Co-Principal Investigator, Peter V. Marsden; Co-Principal Investigator, Michael Hout; Sponsored by National Science Foundation. -NORC ed.- Chicago: NORC at the University of Chicago [producer and distributor]. Data accessed from the GSS Data Explorer website at gssdataexplorer.norc.org.